Remains from Seljuk times are spread out över a wide part of the county of Selçuk in the province of İzmir. It has been shown that this region was originally inhabited by the Carians and Lelegians. It was later settled by the Ionian colonists who came here under the leadership of Androklos, the son of Kodros, a king who ruled Attica In the lOth century B.C. They founded the city of Ephesos. In the 7th century B.C. Ephesos was invaded by the Cimmerians, who came from the Black Sea region, and in 560 B.C. it was occupied by Kroisos (Croesus), king of Lyda. Kroisos relocated the city 1,200 meters away from the harbor of Koressos to the site of what was later to be Temple of Artemis.
In 547 the Persians invaded the city and it was later conquered by Alexander the Great. Following Alexander’s death, it was ruled by Lysimachos, one of his generals. Lysimachos resettled the people living around the Artemision between the two mountains — Pion and Koressos, now called Panayır (“Fair”) and Bülbül (“Nightingale”) respectively. He brought the inhabitants of Klophon and Lebedos here, thus increasing the size of the city which he also had encircled by a fortifying wall.
During Hellenistic times, Ephesos was ruled by the Seleucids. After 190 B.C. it became part of the kingdom of Pergamon and together with that kingdom became a Roman dependency after 133 B.C. It was beginning with the reign of the emperor Augustus that the city experienced its brightest period of development for Ephesos was the capital of the Roman prvince of Asia Minör and thus where the Roman proconsul resided. That Ephesos was also of great importance during Christian times is attested to by the facts that St Paul visited the city after 50 A.D. and that St John was buried at Ayasoluk around the beginning of the 2nd century. The city experienced its third bright period during the reign of the emperor Justinian around the middle of the 6th century. It was during this time that the citadel at Ayasoluk and the church of St John (located inside it) were built.
Ephesos was destroyed during the Arab invasions of the 7th and 8th centuries. The continued silting up of its harbor caused a steady attrition of the city’s commercial importance. With the arrival of the Seljuk Turks in the 14th century there was a revival of activity in the vicinity of the Artemision and in the area of the county that bears their name — Selçuk.